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SpineThe spine, comprised of 33 vertebrae, has several special roles in the body, including:

  • Providing the support needed to walk upright.
  • Protecting the spinal cord.
  • Enabling the torso to bend.
  • Supporting the head.

The spine is supported by an intricate network of blood vessels, nerve endings, ligaments, muscles, intricate joints and discs.

More information about the spine and neck is available from the Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, of which YOA is a member. Visit the Academy links below to learn more.

Spine Basics


Broken Bones and Injuries


Cervical Fracture
Fracture of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine
Osteoporosis and Spinal Fractures
Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

Sprains, Strains and Other Injuries

Lumbar Disk Herniation
Neck Sprain

Other Injuries

Herniated Disk

Diseases and Syndromes

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis


Congenital Scoliosis
Congenital Torticollis (Twisted Neck)
Kyphosis (Roundback) of the Spine
Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

Pain Syndromes

Back Pain in Children
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Cervical Radiculopathy
Cervical Spondylosis
Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (Spinal Cord Compression)
Low Back Pain
Neck Pain

Treatment and Rehabilitation

Electrodiagnostic testing

Nonsurgical Treatment

Low Back Pain Exercise Guide
Spinal Injections

Surgical Treatments

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Artificial Disk Replacement in the Lumbar Spine
Bone Grafts in Spine Surgery
Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Surgical Treatment Options
Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion
Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion
Preparing for Low Back Surgery
Spinal Fusion
Spinal Fusion Glossary
Surgical Options for Cervical Radiculopathy

Prevention and Safety

Backpack Safety
Preventing Back Pain at Work and at Home
Preventing Back Pain: Tips for New Moms